South African anti-apartheid activist and politician, in Germiston, Republic of South Africa. Elected to parliament in 1953, she was a lonely voice in opposition to government’s apartheid policies of white minority rule. When all members of her party lost their seats, she retained hers, and was the only opposition MP to the apartheid National Party for 13 years, from 1961 to 1974. Critical of the treatment of the black majority, she courageously endured years of misogynistic and racist behaviour from the ruling government, convinced that history was on her side. When apartheid champion Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd told her, "I have written you off,” she replied, "And the whole world has written you off."