Quinine is used for the first time as a malaria preventative rather than as a cure once a patient has malaria, on a 118-day Niger River expedition of British explorer and naturalist William Baikie. The expedition will return without the loss of a single man. Malaria has prevented European colonisation of the tropical African interior. Between 1836 and 1849, half (48,3%) of British soldiers sent to Sierra Leone died of malaria. British soldiers sang “Beware, oh beware, of the Bay of Benin / Where few come out although many go in.” With the use of quinine, British politicians will no longer call for the abandonment of Britain’s West African colonies because of the high cost of lives lost to disease.