John Chilembwe, a U.S.-trained Baptist minister, begins an armed uprising to drive Europeans out of Nyasaland (Malawi). He has been frustrated by the British colonial government’s refusal to offer opportunities to educated Africans. He is also outraged by the exploitation of migrant workers on agricultural plantations, and is critical of Africans having to fight and die in World War I for their British colonial masters. He will realise on 26 January that popular support for his uprising is not forthcoming, and that his followers do not have the weapons required to challenge the colonial military. He will place the decapitated head of his enemy, William Livingstone, the manager of a local estate that abuses migrant labourers, impaled on a pole beside his church, and then flee to Mozambique. However, he will be captured and killed while on the journey. An unknown number of his followers will be executed by the British. While colonial authorities dismiss him as a murderous madman, his revolt publicises the abuse and exploitation of Africans in Nyasaland, shows the vulnerabilities of the colonial system, and sparks nationalistic feelings that will ultimately lead to independence. January 15 will be celebrated as John Chilembwe Day in independent Malawi.